CASE STUDY 4 – BALTIC SEA (SWEDISH WATERS)
Global resource area optimization, focused on energy, food supply and environment
In this case study, suitable offshore areas were analysed in order to evaluate the possible environmental improvements that the cultivation of mussels and algae culture for animal feed and human food will bring to the local region e.g. eutrophication and ocean acidification. An important part of the case study focuses on possibilities and limitations when combining wind energy harvesting with food harvesting. The following aspects were considered:
- Logistics: Aquaculture farms require infrastructure and harvesting technology that may be in conflict with the maintenance personnel and vessels that need to service offshore wind turbines. How could this be combined in a good way?
- Layout: The layout of wind-farms is currently optimized on flow interaction between turbines in combination with wind statistics, cable costs and foundation costs. The result of that optimization does to a large degree depend on the turbine manufacturer and a current trend to develop larger turbines to decrease the cost of electricity production. That also results in larger distances between turbines. This changes the possibility and/or limitations of how to establish aquaculture farms within wind-farms.
- Regulations and guidelines: The aim with the case is to evaluate if multi-use is realistic with full-scale projects. The existing regulations and their application for different countries also need to be investigated.
- The selection of suitable species of algae or mussels that may be cultivated.
- Influence of sea depth and distance to cost for optimal energy and aquaculture harvest.
- Use of algae, mussel in a more sustainable way for animal feed as well as a resource for human food.
- Sustainability analysis including LCA, CBA and EROI methods.
The final report for Case Study 4 is available for download here.